International Law is a part of human rights field, which aims at the maintenance of certain international legal obligations and rules that are enforced internationally. A special majority of people are interested in international law because they are citizens of various counties which have different legal systems and thus, they need to know about the different legal systems, which are in force in their respective countries. International law is created and maintained by the governments of the nations, who are involved in the business of international trade and relations. The need for international law arises when there is an armed conflict abroad, when one country seeks to dominate another country or when there is a disagreement between two countries over the political status, which in turn leads to war.
Therefore, we can say that the international law helps to protect the rights and the properties of individuals. There are many types of international laws that are in force in the legal systems of different nations. We have the universal legal systems, the regional legal systems and the political legal systems, which are in force in the constituent parts of the nation.
The common law of a nation has basically been derived from the constitutions and the decisions of the previous regimes. When we talk of the constitution, we mean the document that was incorporated by the people through their elected representatives in the session that took place at the instance of the citizens. Every member of the legislature is bound to ensure the preservation of the common law and the decision of the legislature must be carried out according to the provisions of the constitution.
The emergency powers are essentially derived from the common law and the right to executive power belongs to the judges. In emergency powers, there is a division of power between the legislature and the executive, which ensure the continuity of the administration. The executive power is mostly defined as having the control over the execution of the laws, which includes the preventive measures and the use of force. This power is also mostly exercised by the prosecutor. Therefore, the crisis governing the constitutionality of a law is basically decided by the constitutionality of the executive.
There is a difference between the federal system and the common law system. In the case of the federal system, the supreme law exists and all decisions are made according to the constitution that is to say, according to the decisions of the federal administration. The common law systems are characterized by the diversity and the very mobility of the courts and the freedom that they enjoy expressing themselves. Hence, the courts can pronounce decisions that are against the interest of the people and therefore these decisions cannot be implemented in the private law systems of the United States of America.
The jurisdiction that the federal government claims is quite broad and in the event that a person is charged with any crime, the federal system looks to have the person executed irrespective of the fact whether or not the state that he is situated is a state within the United States or not. This is clearly wrong and the protection that the people are entitled to be provided by the state criminal law courts and the private law criminal courts of the United States. However, it has been a long time since the supreme court of the country has issued its decision in the matter. The common law system has been around since the time when it was first introduced and even then the judges were appointed by the aristocratic families and they ruled according to the constitution that was passed by the framers of the constitution.