Law refers to the systematic procedure of operating legal processes with respect to laws, institutions or people. There are several types of legislation. It includes civil law, criminal law, public law, federal law and private law. Civil law comprises the areas of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including the law relating to trusts, corporations, proprietary enterprises, property, non-profit organizations, lawsuits and actions for breach of contract, negligence, fraud or breach of fiduciary duties. Criminal law is the area of legislation that involves crimes against humanity, such as homicide, robbery, arson, terrorism and assault. Public law deals with matters concerning the public, for example, immigration, trademark infringement, privacy, taxation, education, animals, industrial accidents and professional negligence.
A legislature passes legislation for the execution of state functions by other branches of government and for the welfare of its citizens. Some legislators are compulsory and others are optional. For example, laws that address child abuse and neglect or those that define corporate identity require the concurrence of both chambers of the legislature. The ordinary legislative procedure requires debate, passage of bills and signing by the governor. Bills considered extraordinary require a two-thirds majority in both houses of the legislature and the signature of the governor.
Legislature refers to the legislative body that makes laws. Each legislature has four levels: the federal house of representatives, the provincial house, the national assembly and the provincial parishes. The members of the legislature are directly elected by the people through election commissions. Legislation requires the consent of the legislature before it can be passed into law.
The effectiveness of the legislative process depends on the formulation of appropriate measures and appropriate interpretations of the existing legislations. Imprints of model acts or codes on relevant issues and mechanisms of legislation are distributed to all Houses of Legislature as notifications. These act as guides to the legislation on all relevant issues for the effective implementation of the legislature.
The role of the House of Representatives and the Senate in the passage of legislation is essential. The two houses have their own perspectives and different voting record. The voting record of each House can affect the outcome of legislation. However, the voting record of both Houses together does not determine the outcome of a bill.
Model Acts provides guidelines on how to enact a bill. It gives information about the content, number and different provisions of the bill. It helps in the preparation of a suitable text for the bill. The model acts also provide an overview of the expenses borne by the government and outlines the financial implications for the government and the states.