Laws are theutions that make a society. It governs the interaction of individuals within that society. Laws are made by either legislative bodies or by governments on their own. In many ways laws serve as social principles and rules that we are all guided by, that help us to live harmoniously with one another.
The law is the law made and enforced by governmental or communal institutions to govern conduct, with an exactitude of its definition; a point of longstanding disagreement. It is being defined by various international instruments, including the United Nations. It is the body of principles and fundamental laws that governs conduct in society. It is being defined by common law jurisdictions, both indigenous and universal, including customary international law. It is being defined by case law, which is the application of laws to specific instances. Finally, it is being defined by the judgments of common law courts.
The study of laws is also known as jus clero jus, which is the Latin for “of the constitution of a nation”. The study of laws extends to the level of private law as well as public law. This is because of the separation of judicial and legislative power. Judicial power derives from the common law and revises laws enacted by the legislative power. Public law generally refers to legislation that affects the citizens or inhabitants of a country.
The study of laws is broad and extremely complicated. In fact, it encompasses all areas of human endeavor. It is divided into numerous categories, including civil law, criminal law, penal law, business law, international law, human rights law, and international economic law. Within each category, there exist judicial, administrative, and common law jurisdictions. These jurisdictions differ primarily in their scope, the extent of their caseload, the degree of public access to them, and the responsiveness of the legal system to requests lodged by litigants.
Civil law is divided into civil law jurisdictions and criminal law jurisdictions. Civil laws include laws governing contract disputes, actions in tort, corporate law, personal injury cases, property law, and so forth. Criminal law laws include such statutes as sedation, arson, murder, conspiracy, libel, and so forth. The various courts that exist provide courts with jurisdiction over a host of matters including divorce, adoption, child custody, spousal and child abuse, criminal punishment, and so forth. Many states operate their criminal justice systems through their own legal systems, while others rely on outside sources.
There are three main types of legal systems in the United States. Each one has an extended system of laws that address issues of individual concern. The most popularly known system is the federal court system, which supervises state and local court systems and establishes rules of procedure. Another type of common law jurisdiction is that established by common law rules of property and inheritance. Finally, there are judicial law systems, created for specific situations, such as criminal law, equity, labor, and so on. In the United States, these three court systems generally have one important thing in common: They all have juries to determine guilt and sentence.