Types of Laws and Cases

The legal code is a body of laws, which govern social behaviour and its regulation by public bodies or private individuals. The law is a law designed and implemented by a government, either through governmental or private institutions to legally regulate conduct, with an accurate definition somewhat of a debatable topic. It is most commonly defined as the art and science of civil law.


Civil law refers to a body of law that governs conduct in the civil sphere. The types of laws include criminal law, common law, administrative law, probate law, corporate law, family law, labor law, international law, environmental law and human rights law. A legislative body, such as a government, governs and makes laws for a country or area. Each legislature usually passes laws to be executed by the executive branch of government, including the supreme court and all lower house and senate, as well as some upper house aspects.

Common law jurisdictions include common law, which are jurisdictions outside the judicial system in which decisions are not based on what the constitution says, but rather on customary rules of conduct recognized by the people at common law. These include privileges and immunities, which are not protected in the constitution. These include rights to trial by jury, right of privacy, trial by judge and right of bail. Civil and criminal jurisprudence, which includes admiralty, maritime, probate and divorce, is part of the body of law recognized by the judges. This also includes common law crimes, which include robbery, arson, assault, battery, murder, disorderly conduct, seduction, pornography, cruelty, child abuse and even marital rape. These crimes are not recognized in the constitution.

The jurisdiction of each of these branches is determined by laws that have been passed by legislative bodies. Each type of law has some prerequisites for its enforcement, which include procedures, rules and guidelines. Criminal justice involves prosecution of the offender, including the use of state or federal penal code laws; adjudication of guilt, including admission of facts relative to the crime; punishment of the crime; investigation of the case; pretrial investigation, if there is one; and finally sentence. Civil law involves the protection of civil rights, including the right of property, the right to be protected from unreasonable seizure or repossession; and other specific privileges and immunities applicable to private citizens. Private property law applies to ownership of real property, such as business buildings and real estate.

Civil and criminal laws can be enforced against an individual, company, organization, partnership or government. Criminal laws are enforced by the state or federal courts and can include felonies and misdemeanors. Felonies are punishable by sentences of one year or more. Most states allow for the trial of the accused in criminal cases through juries.

Tort law allows the state or federal courts to award damages for personal or bodily injury, regardless of who was responsible for the injury. In order to establish a claim for compensation under tort law, there must be proof of personal harm or damage. Unlike most civil laws, personal injury claims cannot be pursued through private lawsuits. These laws were created so that injured parties may be sufficiently compensated for injury without having to file a lawsuit in a traditional court.